International Freshwater Aquaculture Training Report: Sukamandi, West Java, Indonesia: Sept-Oct 2013
Institute for Fish Breeding (RIFB), Sukamandi
BRIEF FEEDBACK REPORT by H.
International Freshwater Aquaculture Training
to 13 October 2013
Institute of Fish Breeding (RIFB),
Sukamandi, West Java, Indonesia
The training was conducted at the
Research Institute of Fish Breeding (RIFB), at Sukamandi. The training is part
of the South – South Cooperation (SSC) under FAO, were participants hailed from
Africa, Asia and Oceania. Through FAO – SSC program, there is a memorandum of understanding
on technical assistants and capacity building, skills transfer to 3rd
The objective of the training program
was, aquaculture technology transfer and equipping technical staff members with
skills and knowledge on selective breeding programs.
Brief outline of Research Institute:
Institute of Fish Breeding (RIFB), is mandated to:
Genetically Modified Broodstock and seed of various species (prawn, tilapia,
the seed (product) to the farmers (users)
is a mutual understanding between the farmers and RIFB, whereby initially the
institute supplies fry for free to the farmer and in return accurate and
valuable data on set intervals. This data, once analysed forms basis for grow –
out production of fish in various environments coupled with the centre based
The institution has 5 breeding
programs (headed by promoter supported by researchers and technical assistants)
namely; Pangasiid catfish, Clariid catfish, Tilapia, Common carp and Freshwater
Prawn. Under those programs, all aspects of aquaculture are covered, including:
Broodstock Management, Seed production, hatchery operations, Grow – out
Management, Nutrition and Health Management. Each program has its own
supporting structures namely; hatchery, rearing, nursing and grow – out
facilities (earth ponds).
The highly informative and
educational lectures were taught by qualified researchers from various breeding
programs, and specializing in aspects of aquaculture based at RIFB and other
are five main species being researched on and improved upon mainly;
( Freshwater and Saline), Oreochromis
niloticus, O. aureus, O. mosambicus
Catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus & P. djambal
During the research activities the
centre focus on desired traits of fast growth, salinity tolerance, disease
resistance and flesh quality (white) in several species, as shown in Table 1. To date from the breeding
programs two species are available for commercial aquaculture, white flesh
Pangasiid catfish – “Patin Pasupati” (2006) and high salinity (30ppt) tolerant
Tilapia, “SRIKANDI” (2012).
1: Desired traits and methods used
flesh catfish launched for aquaculture 2006
tolerance and growth
tolerance and growth
(est) Selection response
resistance (Streptococcus agalactiae)
I (alfa) and MCH II marker (specific primer)
and Disease Resistance (KHV)
7.27% genetic gain
20.58% genetic gain for body weight
11.79% genetic gain for body weight
Transgenic Heterozygous (2 fold growth)
Genetic gain after 4 generations
Rice cum fish culture
form of aquaculture is mostly practiced in rural areas, since 1860. It is
environmental friendly and socio – economically viable. During this culture,
one crop of rice, results in 2 crops of fish / prawn.
and Genetic Laboratory - Transgenic Fish
gene transfer using electroporation.
to various equipment such as the
Automatic DNA / RNA Extraction processor, Thermal cycle and Real Time
PCR( DNA / RNA analysis) , Horizontal and vertical electrophoresis (molecular
marker analysis and protein analysis) , electroporator (gene transfer), and acoustic flow cytometer (ploidy,
microbiology ) amongst others.
and grow – out management of Pangasiid
Broodstock selection, hormonal treatment, stripping, fertilization and artificial
Catfish breeding, the male
catfish testes are only cut 75%, the male is sewed up and kept in isolation for
Partial gonadectomy of male catfish (Clarias
garipinus), for further information read paper by O.T. Adebayo*, E.A.
Fasakin, J.A. Adewumi, (2011), Reproductive performance of partial gonadectomised
male African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus broodstocks, Elsevier.
Nile Tilapia is transformed into saline tilapia by gene manipulation, derived
from 8 different strains of tilapia. Growth supplement, DNA vaccine and
Salinity gene marker – stress supplement techniques are applied. The saline
tilapia hybrid locally known as SRIKANDI can withstand salinity up to 35ppt.
Saline tilapia have higher DHA (Omega 3 FA), no mud odour and more delicious. It
also shows good growth as due to high salinity, there is limited reproduction
and all energy converted to growth. The best saline tilapia is a strain derived
from O.aures and O. niloticus (Nirwana).
The saline tilapia reach marketable
size in 3 months of rearing whereas the local tilapia takes 5 – 6 months. The
ready saline tilapia larvae / fry, from RIFB are distributed to the backyard
hatchery or local fisheries department and finally to grow – out farmer.
A.Cage culture, Jatiluhur
Culture of tilapia and common carp in
man-made reservoir. Interesting design is being used of double netting (top net
host common carp and bottom net tilapia), all uneaten feed by common carp is
consumed by the tilapia.
b B.Backyard Hatchery
The backyard hatchery design varies
with farmer, based on skills and resources at hand. In order to operate the
hatchery, the farmers are trained on aquaculture technology of fish nursing /
hatchery and marketing. Whereby the breeding station sells larvae to the farmer
at reasonable price.
About 40 million Pangasiid larvae per
year are produced at the breeding station, then distributed to the farmers with
backyard hatcheries. The fry are grown for 20 days at 35ͦC and sold to grow
– out farmers at 150 IDR (15 cents/piece). Greater number of the backyard
hatcheries do not utilize external heat source, rather heavy line the hatchery
with plastic, limiting heat movement (like greenhouse).
The fish are given feed in three
stages during the 20 days period, as follows:
Type of Feed
Pellet (30-40% CP)
Given, we are starting with Oreochromis andersonii tilapia breeding
program, the information and skills learned will be a valuable addition in
realisation and success of the endeavour. This course is vital for developing
aquaculture countries to improve production and engage intensive culturing
system and do breeding programs.
Apart from the theoretical knowledge and
skills acquired, we learned more about Indonesian Culture, as well as off all
other participants. Vital networks have been established with the RIFB
researchers as well with the participants, a platform where information will be
shared on aquaculture development.
In order to enhance capacity, skills
training should continue but more in form of hands-on participation at farm
level for extended period, be it in Africa or worldwide. I would like to thank
MFMR, FAO – SSC and RIFB for affording me the opportunity to learn this vital
skills to improve aquaculture development in Namibia.
Figure 1 and 2: Participants at RIFB, Sukamandi –
official opening with FAO Rep Dr. Musaraf (sided –centre) and Dr. Imrod Nawawi (sited
– far right) – RIFB’s Director
Figure 3 and
4 : Award ceremony and gifting to RIFB staff from Trainees
Figure 5 and
6 : Class participation and practicals at RIFB
Figure 6 and
7 : Physiological and Genetic Laboratory practicals at RIFB – Transgenic fish
Figure 8 and
9 : Group discussion
Figure 10 and 11: Cage farming in artificial dam and
induced spawning of Pangasiid catfish
and 13 : Backyard hatchery for Pangasiid larvae
Figure 14 and 15
: Leisure times, Panah (centre) birthday and prawn day